Journal: IPSI Transactions on Internet Research

Crime-Avoiding Routing Navigation

Authors: Rishe, Naphtali Sadjadi, Masoud
Adjouadi, Malek

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Extensive prior work has provided methods for the optimization of routing based on the criteria of travel time and/or the cost of travel and/or the distance traveled. A typical method of routing involves building a graph comprised of street segments, assigning a normalized weighted value to each segment, and then applying the weighted-shorted path algorithm to the graph to find the best route. Some users desire that the routing suggestion include consideration pertaining to the reduction of risk of encountering violent crime. For example, a user desires a leisurely walk via a safe route from her hotel in an unknown city. Here, we present a method to quantify such user preferences and the risks of encountering crime and to augment the standard routing methods by assigning weights to safety considerations. The proposed method’s advantages, in comparison to other crimeavoidance routing algorithms, include weighting crime types with respect to their potential detrimental value to the user, with temporal qualification and quantification of crime and its statistical aggregation at the geographic resolution down to a city block.


Crime-avoidance, Crime classification, Crime data, Crime impact weighting, Multi-parametric routing, Navigation, Routing, Spatiotemporal analysis of crime

Published in: IPSI Transaction on Internet Research (Volume: 20, Issue: 1)
Publisher: IPSI, Belgrade

Date of Publication: January 1, 2024

Open Access: CC-BY-NC-ND
DOI: 10.58245/ipsi.tir.2401.06

Pages: 60 - 69

ISSN: 1820 - 4503


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Rishe, Naphtali; Sadjadi, Masoud; and Adjouadi, Malek

Rishe, Naphtali

Rishe [] is the inaugural outstanding university professor of Florida International University (FIU). He is a professor at FIU’s Knight Foundation School of Computing and Information Sciences. Rishe is the Director of FIU’s High-Performance Database Research Center. From 2013 to 2022, Rishe was the executive director of a multi-university Center for Advanced Knowledge Enablement sponsored by the National Science Foundation’s industryuniversity cooperation program. Rishe’s research has been funded by the U.S. Government and Industry at over $50 million. Rishe’s inventions include 26 U.S. patents. Rishe is a Fellow medalist of the National Academy of Inventors. In 2021, Rishe received the IBM Global University Programs award. Rishe’s publications include 440 papers and six books. Rishe’s pioneering geospatial system TerraFly has been highlighted by the National Science Foundation in its reports to U.S. Congress.
(e-mail:, ORCID: 0000-0002-7494-0279)


Sadjadi, Masoud

Sadjadi received a B.S. degree in Hardware Engineering in 1995, an M.S. degree in Software Engineering in 1999, and a Ph.D. degree in Computer Science from Michigan State University in 2004. Dr. Sadjadi is currently an Associate Professor at the Knight Foundation School of Computing and Information Sciences at Florida International University, where he has been on the faculty since 2004. He is the Director of the Center of Partnership for International Research & Education (PIRE), which is funded by the National Science Foundation for $2.3 million. He is also the Director of the Autonomic Cloud Research Laboratory (ACRL) and leads several projects under the Latin American Grid initiative. He has extensive experience in software development and leading large-scale software engineering projects both in industry and in academia. Currently, he is collaborating with top researchers in eight countries and is leading several international collaborative research projects. He is serving as a General Chair of SEKE 2012 and has served as the Program Chair, Co-Chair, and Committee Member of several top-tier international conferences and workshops in his field. He has served as a referee for several IEEE and SP&E journals and as a referee and panelist for several funding agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), Luxembourg National Research Fund (FNR), and Florida Sea Grant. His current research interests include Distributed Systems, Software Engineering, Autonomic Computing, High-Performance Computing, Grid Computing, Cloud Computing, Pervasive Systems, and Mobile Computing. He has more than 80 refereed publications and is PI or Co-PI of 17 grants from NSF, IBM, Kaseya, TeraGrid, and FIU for a total of about $6 million. He is a member of the IEEE and can be reached at and
(e-mail:, ORCID: 0000-0003-3915-6603)

× Adjouadi, Malek

Adjouadi is the WARE Distinguished Professor at FIU’s Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Since 1993, Adjouadi has directed the FIU Center for Advanced Technology and Education []. Adjouadi’s doctorate is from the University of Florida (1985). His expertise is in image processing, machine learning, neuroimaging, and assistive technology research. He has published as an author or coauthor of two books, 142 Journal articles, and 252 refereed conference articles.
(e-mail:, ORCID: 0000-0001-5380-3155)


Cite this article

Rishe, Naphtali; Sadjadi, Masoud; and Adjouadi, Malek "Crime-Avoiding Routing Navigation", IPSI Transactions on Internet Research, vol. 20(1), pp. 60-69, 2024.