Journal: IPSI Transactions on Internet Research

Integrating Location Information as Geohash Codes
in Convolutional Neural Network-Based Satellite
Image Classification

Authors: Mahara, Arpan and Rishe, Naphtali

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In the past few years, there have been many research studies conducted in the field of Satellite Image Classification. The purposes of these studies included flood identification, forest fire monitoring, greenery land identification, and land-usage identification. In this field, finding suitable data is often considered problematic, and some research has also been done to identify and extract suitable datasets for classification. Although satellite data can be challenging to deal with, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), which consist of multiple interconnected neurons, have shown promising results when applied to satellite imagery data. In the present work, first we have manually downloaded satellite images of four different classes in Florida locations using the TerraFly Mapping System, developed and managed by the High Performance Database Research Center at Florida International University. We then develop a CNN architecture suitable for extracting features and capable of multi-class classification in our dataset. We discuss the shortcomings in the classification due to the limited size of the dataset. To address this issue, we first employ data augmentation and then utilize transfer learning methodology for feature extraction with VGG16 and ResNet50 pretrained models. We use these features to classify satellite imagery of Florida. We analyze the misclassification in our model and, to address this issue, we introduce a location-based CNN model. We convert coordinates to geohash codes, use these codes as an additional feature vector and feed them into the CNN model. We believe that the new CNN model combined with geohash codes as location features provides a better accuracy for our dataset.


CNN (Convolutional Neural Network), Data Augmentation, Geohash Code, Satellite Image, Transfer Learning

Published in: IPSI Transaction on Internet Research (Volume: 19, Issue: 2)
Publisher: IPSI, Belgrade

Date of Publication: July 1, 2023

Open Access: CC-BY-NC-ND
DOI: 10.58245/ipsi.tir.2302.04

Pages: 24 - 30

ISSN: 1820 - 4503


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Mahara, Arpan

School of Computing and Information Sciences, Florida Internation University, USA.
e-mail:; Orcid: 0009-0003-5831-3552


Rishe, Naphtali

School of Computing and Information Sciences, Florida Internation University, USA.
e-mail:; Orcid ID: 0000-0002-1611-4067


Cite this article

Mahara, Arpan and Rishe, Naphtali "Integrating Location Information as Geohash Codes in Convolutional Neural Network-Based Satellite Image Classification", IPSI Transactions on Internet Research, vol. 19(2), pp. 24-30, 2023.